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This module provides many useful utility functions for creating and processing wikilinks within Wiktionary.


full_link(term, alt, lang, sc, face, id, annotations, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)

Creates a full link, with annotations, in the style of {{l}} or {{term}}. The parameters are: term (page name), alternative display, language object, script code, script face (see Module:script utilities#tag_text), senseid, table of annotations (see format_link_annotations). All parameters may be nil except for the annotations, but an error will be shown if the term, alt and transliteration (in the annotations) are all missing.

The function will:

  • Try to determine the script, based on the characters found in the term or alt parameter, if the script was not given.
  • Call language_link on the term/alt forms, to remove diacritics in the page name, process any embedded wikilinks and create links to appendix pages when necessary.
  • Call Module:script utilities#tag_text to add the appropriate language and script tags to the term.
  • Generate a transliteration, based on the alt or term parameters, if the script is not Latin and no transliteration was provided.
  • Add the annotations (transliteration, gender, gloss etc.) after the link.


format_link_annotations(lang, info)

Formats annotations that are displayed with a link. Annotations are the extra bits of information that are displayed following the linked term, and include things such as gender, transliteration, gloss and so on. The first parameter is the language object, the second is a table possessing some or all of the following keys:

Table containing a list of gender specifications in the style of Module:gender and number.
Gloss that translates the term in the link, or gives some other descriptive information.
Part of speech of the linked term. If the given parameter matches one of the templates in Category:Part of speech tags, then call that to show a part-of-speech tag. Otherwise, just show the given text as it is.
Literal meaning of the term, if the usual meaning is figurative or idiomatic.

Any of the above values can be omitted from the info parameter. If a completely empty table is given (with no annotations at all), then an empty string is returned.


language_link(text, alt, lang, id, allowSelfLink)

Creates a basic link to the given term. It links to the language section (such as #English), but it does not add language and script wrappers, so any code that uses this function should call Module:script utilities#tag_text to add such wrappers itself at some point.

It accepts the following parameters:

The text to turn into a link. This is generally the name of a page. The string can contain wikilinks already embedded in them, which can also have their own alternative display text. These are processed individually just like a single link would be. The alt parameter is ignored in this case.
The alternative display for the link, if this is different from the linked page. If this is nil, the text parameter is used instead (much like regular wikilinks). If text contains wikilinks in it, this parameter is ignored and has no effect.
The language object for the term being linked.
An additional sense ID to insert into the link. This is used in conjunction with {{senseid}}. This is optional.
If true, the function will also generate links to the current page. The default (false) will not generate a link but generate a bolded "self link" instead.

The following special options are processed for each link (both simple text and with embedded wikilinks):

  • The target page name will be processed to generate the correct entry name. This is done via Module:languages#makeEntryName and is generally used to automatically strip dictionary-only diacritics that are not part of the normal written form of a language.
  • If the text starts with *, then the term is considered a reconstructed term, and a link to the Appendix: namespace will be created. If the text contains embedded wikilinks, then * is automatically applied to each one individually, while preserving the displayed form of each link as it was given. This allows linking to phrases containing multiple reconstructed terms, while only showing the * once at the beginning.
  • If the text starts with :, then the link is treated as "raw" and the above steps are skipped. This can be used in rare cases where the page name begins with * or if diacritics should not be stripped. For example:
    • {{l|en|*nix}} links to Appendix:English/nix (* is interpreted as a reconstruction), but {{l|en|:*nix}} links to *nix.
    • {{l|sl|Franche-Comté}} links to Franche-Comte ("é" is converted to "e" by makeEntryName), but {{l|sl|:Franche-Comté}} links to Franche-Comté.
  • A link to the correct language section is added, along with the sense ID.



Replaces all [[wikilinks]] with their linktitle as simple text. This function can be invoked from either a template or from another module.

local export = {}

--TODO: move to [[Module:languages]]
local override_translit = {
	["ab"] = true,
	["abq"] = true,
	["ady"] = true,
	["av"] = true,
	["axm"] = true,
	["ba"] = true,
	["bo"] = true,
	["bua"] = true,
	["ce"] = true,
	["chm"] = true,
	["cv"] = true,	
	["dar"] = true,
	["dv"] = true,
	["dz"] = true,
	["el"] = true,
	["gmy"] = true,
	["grc"] = true,
	["hy"] = true,
	["inh"] = true,
	["iu"] = true,
	["ka"] = true,
	["kk"] = true,
	--["ko"] = true,
	["kbd"] = true,
	["kca"] = true,
	["kjh"] = true,
	["kjj"] = true,
	["kn"] = true,
	["koi"] = true,
	["kpv"] = true,
	["ky"] = true,
	["kv"] = true,
	["lo"] = true,
	["lbe"] = true,
	["lez"] = true,
	["lzz"] = true,
	["mdf"] = true,
	["ml"] = true,
	["mn"] = true,
	["my"] = true,
	["myv"] = true,
	["nog"] = true,	
	["oge"] = true,
	["os"] = true,
	["sah"] = true,
	["si"] = true,
	["sgh"] = true,
	["sva"] = true,
	["ta"] = true,
	["tab"] = true,
	["te"] = true,
	["tg"] = true,
	["tt"] = true,
	["tyv"] = true,
	["ug"] = true,
	["udi"] = true,
	["udm"] = true,
	["xal"] = true,
	["xcl"] = true,
	["xmf"] = true,

local ignore_cap = {
	["ko"] = true,

local phonetic_extraction = {
	["th"] = "Module:th"

local pos_tags = {
	["a"] = "adjective",
	["adv"] = "adverb",
	["int"] = "interjection",
	["n"] = "noun",
	["pron"] = "pronoun",
	["v"] = "verb",
	["vi"] = "intransitive verb",
	["vt"] = "transitive verb",
	["vti"] = "transitive and intransitive verb",

function export.getLinkPage(target, lang)
	-- If the link contains unexpanded template parameters, then don't create a link.
	if target:find("{{{", nil, true) then
		return nil
	if target:find("^:") or target:find("^w:") or target:find("^wikipedia:") then
		return target
	-- Remove diacritics from the page name
	target = lang:makeEntryName(target)
	-- Link to appendix for reconstructed terms and terms in appendix-only languages
	if target:find("^*.") then
		if lang:getCode() == "und" then
			return nil
		target = "Reconstruction:" .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. "/" .. mw.ustring.sub(target, 2)
	elseif lang:getType() == "reconstructed" then
		error("The specified language " .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. " is unattested, while the given word is not marked with '*' to indicate that it is reconstructed")
	elseif lang:getType() == "appendix-constructed" then
		target = "Appendix:" .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. "/" .. target
	return target

-- Make a language-specific link from given link's parts
local function makeLangLink(link, lang, id, allowSelfLink)
	-- If there is no display form, then create a default one
	if not link.display then
		link.display =
		-- Strip the prefix from the displayed form
		-- TODO: other interwiki links?
		if link.display:find("^:") then
			link.display = link.display:gsub("^:", "")
		elseif link.display:find("^w:") then
			link.display = link.display:gsub("^w:", "")
		elseif link.display:find("^wikipedia:") then
			link.display = link.display:gsub("^wikipedia:", "")
	-- Process the target = export.getLinkPage(, lang)
	if not then
		return link.display
	-- If the target is the same as the current page, then return a "self-link" like the software does
	if not allowSelfLink and not id and ( == mw.title.getCurrentTitle().prefixedText or == ":" .. mw.title.getCurrentTitle().prefixedText) then
		return "<strong class=\"selflink\">" .. link.display .. "</strong>"
	-- Add fragment
	-- Do not add a section link to "Undetermined", as such sections do not exist and are invalid.
	-- TabbedLanguages handles links without a section by linking to the "last visited" section,
	-- but adding "Undetermined" would break that feature.
	if not ("^w:") or"^wikipedia:")) then
		if link.fragment or mw.ustring.find(, "#$") then
			require("Module:debug").track("links/fragment/" .. lang:getCode())
		if not link.fragment and lang:getCode() ~= "und" then
			if id then
				link.fragment = lang:getCanonicalName() .. "-" .. id
			elseif not"^Appendix:") and not"^Reconstruction:") then
				link.fragment = lang:getCanonicalName()
	-- This allows linking to pages like [[sms:a]] without it being treated weirdly. = mw.ustring.gsub(, ":", "&#x3a;")
	return "[[" .. .. (link.fragment and "#" .. link.fragment or "") .. "|" .. link.display .. "]]"

-- Split a link into its parts
local function parseLink(linktext)
	local link = {target = linktext}
	local found, _, first, second
	found, _, first, second = mw.ustring.find(, "^([^|]+)|(.+)$")
	if found then = first
		link.display = second
		link.display =
	found, _, first, second = mw.ustring.find(, "^(.+)#(.+)$")
	if found then = first
		link.fragment = second
	return link

-- Creates a basic wikilink to the given term. If the text already contains
-- links, these are replaced with links to the correct section.
local function language_link2(terminfo, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
	local text = terminfo.term
	if ignore_cap[terminfo.lang:getCode()] and text then
		text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "%^", "")
	-- If the text begins with * and another character,
	-- then act as if each link begins with *
	local allReconstructed = false
	if text:find("^*.") then
		allReconstructed = true
	-- Do we have embedded wikilinks?
	if text:find("[[", nil, true) then
		if then
			require("Module:debug").track("links/bad id")
		-- Begins and ends with a wikilink tag
		if mw.ustring.find(text, "^%[%[(.+)%]%]$") then
			-- There are no [ ] in between.
			-- This makes the wikilink tag redundant.
			if mw.ustring.find(text, "^%[%[[^%[%]]+%]%]$") then
				require("Module:debug").track("links/redundant wikilink")
				local temp = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "^%[%[(.+)%]%]$", "%1")
				temp = mw.ustring.gsub(temp, "%]%], %[%[", "|")
				if not mw.ustring.find(temp, "[%[%]]") then
		text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "%[%[([^%]]+)%]%]",
				local link = parseLink(linktext)
				if allReconstructed then = "*" ..
				return makeLangLink(link, terminfo.lang,, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
		-- Remove the extra * at the beginning if it's immediately followed
		-- by a link whose display begins with * too
		if allReconstructed then
			text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "^%*%[%[([^|%]]+)|%*", "[[%1|*")
		-- There is no embedded wikilink, make a link using the parameters.
		text = makeLangLink({target = text, display = terminfo.alt}, terminfo.lang,, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
	return text

-- Format the annotations (things following the linked term)
function export.format_link_annotations(terminfo, face)
	local ret = ""
	-- Interwiki link
	if terminfo.interwiki then
		ret = ret .. terminfo.interwiki
	-- Genders
	if terminfo.genders and #terminfo.genders > 0 then
		local gen = require("Module:gender and number")
		ret = ret .. "&nbsp;" .. gen.format_list(terminfo.genders, terminfo.lang)
	local glosses = {}
	-- Transliteration
	if then
		if face == "term" then
			table.insert(glosses, "<span lang=\"\" class=\"tr mention-tr\">" .. .. "</span>")
			table.insert(glosses, "<span lang=\"\" class=\"tr\">" .. .. "</span>")
	-- Gloss/translation
	if terminfo.gloss then
		table.insert(glosses, "<span class=\"mention-gloss-double-quote\">“</span><span class=\"mention-gloss\">" .. terminfo.gloss .. "</span><span class=\"mention-gloss-double-quote\">”</span>")
	-- Part of speech
	if terminfo.pos then
		table.insert(glosses, pos_tags[terminfo.pos] or terminfo.pos)
	-- Literal/sum-of-parts meaning
	if terminfo.lit then
		table.insert(glosses, "literally <span class=\"mention-gloss-double-quote\">“</span><span class=\"mention-gloss\">" .. terminfo.lit .. "</span><span class=\"mention-gloss-double-quote\">”</span>")
	if #glosses > 0 then
		ret = ret .. " &lrm;(" .. table.concat(glosses, ", ") .. ")"
	return ret

-- A version of {{l}} or {{m}} that can be called from other modules too
function export.full_link(term, alt, lang, sc, face, id, annotations, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons)
	local terminfo = term
	if type(terminfo) == "table" then
		face = alt
		allowSelfLink = lang
		dontLinkRecons = sc
		terminfo = {term = term, alt = alt, lang = lang, sc = sc, id = id, genders = annotations and annotations.genders, tr = annotations and, gloss = annotations and annotations.gloss, pos = annotations and annotations.pos, lit = annotations and annotations.lit, interwiki = annotations and annotations.interwiki}
		require("Module:debug").track("links/term not table")
	-- Create the link
	local link = ""
	local m_utilities = require("Module:utilities")
	local m_scriptutils = require("Module:script utilities")
	-- Is there any text to show?
	if (terminfo.term or terminfo.alt) then
		-- Try to detect the script if it was not provided
		if not then = require("Module:scripts").findBestScript(terminfo.alt or terminfo.term, terminfo.lang)
		-- Only make a link if the term has been given, otherwise just show the alt text without a link
		link = m_scriptutils.tag_text(terminfo.term and language_link2(terminfo, allowSelfLink, dontLinkRecons) or terminfo.alt, terminfo.lang,, face)
		-- No term to show.
		-- Is there at least a transliteration we can work from?
		link = m_scriptutils.request_script(terminfo.lang,
		if link == "" or not or == "-" then
			-- No link to show, and no transliteration either. Show a term request.
			local category = ""
			if mw.title.getCurrentTitle().nsText ~= "Template" then
				category = "[[Category:" .. terminfo.lang:getCanonicalName() .. " term requests]]"
			link = "<small>[Term?]</small>" .. category

			if terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "la"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "grc"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "fr"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "en"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "pro"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "cu"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "ar"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "it"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "ota"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "de"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "ira-pro"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "enm"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "ang"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "ine-pro"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "sh"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "zlw-slv"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "akk"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "gmh"
			and terminfo.lang:getCode() ~= "fro"
			then link = link .. "[[Category:Daniel Carrero's test category]]" end
	local mantrFix, redtrFix
	local manual_tr = ""
	if == "" or == "-" then = nil
	elseif phonetic_extraction[terminfo.lang:getCode()] then
		local m_phonetic = require(phonetic_extraction[terminfo.lang:getCode()]) = or m_phonetic.getTranslit(export.remove_links(terminfo.term))
	elseif (terminfo.term or terminfo.alt) and not (("Latn", nil, true)) or == "Latinx") and (not or override_translit[terminfo.lang:getCode()]) then
		-- Try to generate a transliteration if necessary
		local automated_tr = terminfo.lang:transliterate(export.remove_links(terminfo.alt or terminfo.term),
		if automated_tr then
			if ~= automated_tr then
				if then
					manual_tr =
					mantrFix = true
				if terminfo.lang:link_tr() then
					automated_tr = makeLangLink({target = automated_tr}, terminfo.lang)
				end = automated_tr
				redtrFix = true
	return link .. export.format_link_annotations(terminfo, face)
				.. (mantrFix and "[[Category:Terms with manual transliterations different from the automated ones]][[Category:Terms with manual transliterations different from the automated ones/" .. terminfo.lang:getCode() .. "]]" or "")
				.. (redtrFix and "[[Category:Terms with redundant transliterations]][[Category:Terms with redundant transliterations/" .. terminfo.lang:getCode() .. "]]" or "")

function export.language_link(text, alt, lang, id, allowSelfLink)
	local terminfo = text
	if type(terminfo) == "table" then
		allowSelfLink = alt
		terminfo = {term = text, alt = alt, lang = lang, id = id}
		require("Module:debug").track("links/term not table")
	return language_link2(terminfo, allowSelfLink)

-- Strips all square brackets out or replaces them.
function export.remove_links(text)
	if type(text) == "table" then text = text.args[1] end; if not text then text = "" end
	text = text:gsub("%[%[Category:[^|%]]-|?[^|%]]-%]%]", "")
	text = text:gsub("%[%[[^|%]]-|", "")
	text = text:gsub("%[%[", "")
	text = text:gsub("%]%]", "")

	return text

function export.english_links(text)
	local lang = require("Module:languages").getByCode("en")
	text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, "%[%[([^%]]+)%]%]",
			local link = parseLink(linktext)
			return makeLangLink(link, lang, nil, true, false)
	return text

return export